One of the key social economic problems of the current stage of development in Ghana is that of unemployment.
Unemployment is the state of being jobless. It is an economic menace and a canker in the midst of the youth in Ghana. Youth unemployment has been a policy concern for decades because of the ‘scaring effects’ on individuals and the economy. According to a report by tradingeconomis.com , unemployment increased by 2.40% in March 2019 in Ghana.
Unemployment happens when a man who is effectively looking or yearning for job is unable to find one. As indicated by unemployment rate and other yardsticks, unemployment is an important measure of the economy’s strength.
A high unemployment rate indicates an economy in recession. The problem the young people of Ghana face in securing adequately remunerated and productive jobs after leaving school tends to increase their vulnerability in society, making them susceptible to social vices because of the following; rural-urban migration. Ghana’s unemployment in the urban areas is also found to be more prevalent than in rural areas.
The regular migration of people, particularly the youth, from rural areas to urban centres in search of better economic prospects which are not easy to come by, largely explains the phenomenon of the high urban unemployment rate in the country. In Ghana, the vast and ever increasing gap between the supply of and the demand for jobs has widened due to the influx of private tertiary institutions.
Unfortunately, while job opportunities from the government or public sector have virtually scaled down, private sector growth has been able to adequately absorb the increasing number of graduates. Notwithstanding, the causes mentioned above, youth unemployment in Ghana has truly been noticed. Judging from the political unrest and rise in social vices, they are escalating really fast, when people become unemployed for long, they tend to lose their faith in government and democratic principles, Ghana is no different. In addition, unemployment affects social issues.
Individuals who are unemployed and living in poverty commit many crimes. According to an article/report published by GhanaWeb on 22nd July 2019, violent crimes have increased by 43% in the second quarter of the year. Looting, robbing among others are mostly the crimes unemployed youth engage in. Unemployed people look for money through so many ways like duping people by means of Internet fraud, hacking into people’s account and others.
This makes our country to be chaotic as social security is certainly jeopardised. When a man is deprived of his source of income, he obviously grows poor and when poverty rates shoots up, then it is a signal that the economy is in a great threat.
Again, unemployed youth are also faced with health issues. This is also another individual negative effect and important as well. Being unemployed can lead to depression, low self-esteem, anxiety and other mental problems. This mostly happens when an individual fails to get a job over a period of time. This may cause stress and strain on the body.
In conclusion, Ghana is still struggling with the causes and effects of unemployment. A solution to this problem could mean better living conditions for the youth in Ghana as well as other people facing unemployment issues by providing them with jobs. It is important for government to understand that unemployment is a major contribution to the economy not growing as fast as it should.
Submitted By: Appiah Juliet Anaasi and Kwame Offin Boateng-Sarpong